Montana Historical Society

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Montana and the Great War: Reading List

Note: Montana The Magazine of Western History, Jon Axline, Farcountry Press, and TwoDot Press graciously provided permission to post pdfs of the articles they published on World War I as part of this project. You can find them through links below. We have also provided links to theses published online through Scholarworks and to articles posted on JSTOR, an online research platform. You can access the material on JSTOR through participating institutions. Most of the material is also available by registering for an individual account. Find the books at your local library or  bookstore or ask your librarian about borrowing them through interlibrary loan.  

Bibliography of Published Material

Aarstad, Richard R., "Montana's Other Strike: The 1917 IWW Timber Strike in the Kootenai Valley." Master's thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, 2000.

"A ‘Fluey’ Diary, 1918." Montana The Magazine of Western History 37, no. 2 (1987): 62-64.

Allison, Amorette. "Fort Became Hub for 'War Horses'." Miles City Star, March 3, 2015 (accessed March 8, 2017).

Alonso, Harriet Hyman. “Jeannette Rankin and the Women’s Peace Union.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 39, no. 2 (1989): 34-49. 

Axline, Jon. “Newspapers as Propaganda: William Campbell.” The Independent Record, December 16, 1999.

Bird, F. W. "Montana." Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Taxation under the Auspices of the National Tax Association 21 (1928): 261-65. (Discusses the effects of tax policy changes in Montana during the war.)

Board, John C. "The Lady from Montana." Montana The Magazine of Western History 17, no. 3 (1967): 2-17. (Article on Jeannette Rankin)

Britten, Thomas A. American Indians in World War I: At Home and at War. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997. 

Brod, Marian Holter. "Montana Staats-Zeitung 1914-1917: A German Newspaper in America  During World War I." Master's thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, 1979.

Christensen, Bonnie. "'Nothing up Here but Foreigners and Coal Slack': World War I and the Transformation of Red Lodge." Montana The Magazine of Western History 52, no. 3 (2002): 16-29. 

Cohen, Michael. " ‘The Ku Klux Government’: Vigilantism, Lynching, and the Repression of the IWW." Journal for the Study of Radicalism 1, no. 1 (2007): 31-56.

Cushman, Dan. Plenty of Room and Air. Missoula: Stay Away Joe Publishers, 1975. (Memoir of growing up in Montana during WWI.)

Deibler, Frederick S. "Committee on Academic Freedom: Statement on the Case of Professor Louis Levine of the University of Montana." Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors (1915-1955) 5, no. 5 (1919): 13-25.

Emmons, David M. "A Tower of Strength to the Movement: Father Michael Hannan and the Irish Republic." American Journal of Irish Studies 12 (2015): 77-116.  (Discusses an Irish priest in Butte during the war.)

Emmons, David M. "Immigrant Workers and Industrial Hazards: The Irish Miners of Butte, 1880-1919." Journal of American Ethnic History 5, no. 1 (1985): 41-64. (See pages 54-55 for information on Irish immigrants in Butte during the war).

Evans, Robert E. “Montana’s Role in the Enactment of Legislation Designed to Suppress the Industrial Workers of the World.” Master’s thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, 1964.  

Everett, George. “The Captain Who Fought World War I in Butte, Montana.” Only in Butte. Accessed 5 July, 2016.

Finn, Janet L. "Children of the Hill: Situating Children in Butte's History." Montana The Magazine of Western History 62, no. 4 (2012): 23-94. (See pages 34-35 for stories about growing up during WWI.) 

Fishburn, Rosemarie. “The Montana Farmer: An Ideological Analysis, 1915-1922.” Master’s thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, 1971.

Franklin, F. G. "Anti-Syndicalist Legislation." The American Political Science Review 14, no. 2 (1920): 291-98. 

Franz, Rufus M. “It Happened in Montana.” Mennonite Life 7 (October 1952): 181-84. (Recounts the experience of a Mennonite leader in Dawson County, who was threatened with mob violence during WWI; the article begins on page 39 of the PDF in the webpage.)

Fritz, Nancy R. “The Montana Council of Defense.” Master’s thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, 1966.  

Gail, William W. Yellowstone County, Montana, in the World War, 1917-1918-1919. Billings, MT: War Book Publishing Company, 1919.

Gordon, Dennis. "Montana's Birdmen of World War I." Montana The Magazine of Western History 29, no. 3 (1979): 28-41. 

Groth, Clarence W. "Sowing and Reaping: Montana Banking—1910-25." Montana The Magazine of Western History 20, no. 4 (1970): 28-35. 

Gutfeld, Arnon et al. “A Russian Jew Named Levine," Michael: On the History of the Jews in the Diaspora (1975): 211-25. (Discusses a college professor in Montana who was tried under the Sedition Act during WWI.)

Gutfeld, Arnon. "The Levine Affair: A Case Study in Academic Freedom." Pacific Historical Review 39, no. 1 (1970): 19-37. (Discusses a college professor in Montana who was tried under the Sedition Act during WWI.)

Gutfeld, Arnon. "The Murder of Frank Little: Radical Labor Agitator in Butte, Montana, 1917," Labor History 10, no. 2 (1969): 177-192. (, Taylor Francis Online, July 3, 2008, accessed November 25, 2016). 

Gutfeld, Arnon. Montana’s Agony: Years of War and Hysteria, 1917-1921. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1979.

Gutfeld, Arnon. "The Speculator Disaster in 1917: Labor Resurgence at Butte, Montana." Arizona and the West 11, no. 1 (1969): 27-38.

Gutfeld, Arnon. "The Ves Hall Case, Judge Bourquin, and the Sedition Act of 1918." Pacific Historical Review 37, no. 2 (1968): 163-78.

Gutfeld, Arnon. "Western Justice and the Rule of Law: Bourquin on Loyalty, the 'Red Scare,' and Indians." Pacific Historical Review 65, no. 1 (1996): 85-106.

Halverson, Guy, and William E. Ames, “The Butte Bulletin: Beginnings of a Labor Daily.”  Montana Journalism Quarterly 46 (1969): 260-66. 

Harrington, James D. "A Reexamination of the Granite Mountain: Speculator Fire." Montana The Magazine of Western History 48, no. 3 (1998): 62-69.

Harwell, Todd S. et al. “ ‘No More War, No More Plague’: The Spanish Influenza Pandemic Toll on Montana.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 68, no. 2 (2018): 27-44.

Hilton, O. A. "Public Opinion and Civil Liberties in Wartime 1917-1919." The Southwestern Social Science Quarterly 28, no. 3 (1947): 201-24.

Hodges, Adam. " ‘Enemy Aliens’ and ‘Silk Stocking Girls’: The Class Politics of Internment in the Drive for Urban Order during World War I." The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 6, no. 4 (2007): 431-58.

Hookstadt, Carl. "Workmen’s Compensation." Monthly Labor Review 10, no. 1 (1920): 230-54. 

Huntington, Samuel P. "The Election Tactics of the Nonpartisan League." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 36, no. 4 (1950): 613-32.

Johnson, Charles Sackett. "An Editor and a War: Will A. Campbell and the Helena Independent 1914-1921." Master's thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, 1977.

Johnson, Michael R. "The I.W.W. and Wilsonian Democracy." Science & Society 28, no. 3 (1964): 257-74.

Kohl, Martha. "The Great War: From the Vaults of the Montana Historical Society." Montana The Magazine of Western History 67, no. 3 (2017): 67-71.

Lacey, Richard H. The Montana Militia: A History of Montana’s Volunteer Forces, 1867-1976.  Dillion, MT: Dillion Tribune-Examiner Press, 1976. (Includes a history of the 163rd Regiment.)

Libecap, Gary D. "Learning about the Weather: Dryfarming Doctrine and Homestead Failure in Eastern Montana, 1900-1925." Montana The Magazine of Western History 52, no. 1 (2002): 24-33. 

Libecap, Gary D., and Hansen Zeynep Kocabiyik. " ‘Rain Follows the Plow’ and Dryfarming Doctrine: The Climate Information Problem and Homestead Failure in the Upper Great Plains, 1890-1925." The Journal of Economic History 62, no. 1 (2002): 86-120.

Mackin, Mark. The Council for Defense: Autocracy in Montana, 1917-1918. Helena, Montana: Carroll College, 1976. 

Morlan, Robert L. Political Prairie Fire: The Nonpartisan League, 1915-1922. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1955.

Mullen, Pierce C., and Michael L. Nelson. "Montanans and ‘The Most Peculiar Disease’: The Influenza Epidemic and Public Health, 1918-1919." Montana The Magazine of Western History 37, no. 2 (1987): 50-61. 

Murphy, Mary. " ‘...And All That Jazz': Changing Manners and Morals in Butte after World War I." Montana The Magazine of Western History 46, no. 4 (1996): 50-63. 

Murphy, Mary. “When Jeannette Said ‘No’: Montana Women’s Response to World War I.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 65, no. 1 (2015): 3-23.

Ore, Janet, Ramsay Historic District National Register Nomination, (NR listed on January, 14, 1988, NR# 87002227), on file at the Montana State Historic Preservation Office, Helena, MT.

Ore, Janet. “Ramsay, Montana: A History of Its Built Environment” (December 1986), on file at the Montana State Historic Preservation Office, Helena, MT.

"Our War with Germany. X (December 4-January 3)." The North American Review 207, no. 747 (1918): 299-306. (Documents the U.S. declaration of war against Hungary and specifically mentions that Jeannette Rankin voted for the declaration.)

Peterson, H. C., and Fite, Gilbert C.  Opponents of War, 1917-1918. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986. (Includes information on the Industrial Workers of the World.)

Possley, Marice. “Jailed for Their Words.” Chicago Tribune, 28 December 2005: 1 & 18. (Discusses effort to gain clemency for Montanans convicted of sedition.)

Pratt, William C. "Rural Radicalism on the Northern Plains, 1912-1950." Montana The Magazine of Western History 42, no. 1 (1992): 42-55. 

Preston, Jack. Big Horn County (Montana) in the World War, 1917-1918-1919 Hardin, MT: Hardin Tribune, 1919. 

Preston Jr., William. Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.

“Proceedings of the court for the trial of impeachments. The people of the state of Montana by the House of representatives thereof against Charles L. Crum, judge of the District court of the fifteenth judicial district of the state of Montana. Held at the Capitol in the city of Helena, state of Montana, March 20th, 21st and 22nd, 1918. The Hon. W.W. McDowell, lieut. governor, presiding.” Helena, MT: State Pub. Co., 1918.  (accessed November 9, 2016)

Punke, Michael. Fire and Brimstone: The North Butte Mining Disaster of 1917. New York, New York: Hyperion Press, 2006. 

Rader, Benjamin G. "The Montana Lumber Strike of 1917." Pacific Historical Review 36, no. 2 (1967): 189-207.

Ruetten, Richard T. “Burton K. Wheeler, 1905-1925: An Independent Liberal under Fire.” Master’s thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene, 1957.

Ruetten, Richard T. "Burton K. Wheeler and the Montana Connection." Montana The Magazine of Western History 27, no. 3 (1977): 2-19. 

Ruetten, Richard T. “Burton K. Wheeler of Montana.” Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, Eugene, 1961.

Saloutos, Theodore. "The Montana Society of Equity." Pacific Historical Review 14, no. 4 (1945): 393-408. 

Sauer, Patrick. "The Year Montana Rounded Up Citizens for Shooting Off Their Mouths,", January 14, 2015 (accessed February 15, 2017).

Schak, Al. Soul Wounds: A Novel of the World War. Missoula: Veteran's Publishers, 1934. (Novel about a Montana soldier wounded by the brutality of war and saved by a mother’s love.)

Scott, Stanley. "A Profusion of Issues: Immigrant Labour, the World War, and the Cominco Strike of 1917." Labour / Le Travail 2 (1977): 54-78. (Discusses labor unrest during the war, including strikes that took place in Montana)

Shore, Chester K. Montana in the Wars. [n.p.]: Star Print. Co., c. 1977. 

Stewart, Jane A. “The First United States Congresswoman.” The Journal of Education 85, no. 8 (2118) (1917): 208-09.

Stone, Geoffrey R. "Judge Learned Hand and the Espionage Act of 1917: A Mystery Unraveled." The University of Chicago Law Review 70, no. 1 (2003): 335-58.

Stone, Geoffrey R. "The Origins of the ‘Bad Tendency’ Test: Free Speech in Wartime." The Supreme Court Review 2002 (2002): 411-53.

Stout, Tom ed. "Military History of Montana." In Montana, Its Story and Biography, vol. 3 of A History of Aboriginal and Territorial Montana and Three Decades of Statehood, edited by Tom Stout, 642-666. American Historical Society: [n.l.], 1921.

Svingen, Orlan J. et al. Splendid Service: The Montana National Guard, 1867-2006. Pullman, Wash.: Washington State University Press, 2010.

Toole, K. Ross.  Twentieth-Century Montana: A State of Extremes. Norman: University of Oklamhoma Press, 1972.

Trimble, Robert L., Robert A. Patterson, Hal G. Stearns, Herbert Spurgeon, and Harry Van Dexter. "More on the Birdmen." Montana The Magazine of Western History 30, no. 1 (1980): 71-72. 

Vindex, Charles. "Radical Rule in Montana." Montana The Magazine of Western History 18, no. 1 (1968): 2-18. 

Wallace, Naomi. "Death of a Wobbly in Montana, 1917." The Massachusetts Review 40, no. 1 (1999): 60-62. (A poem written about Frank Little’s death in Butte.)

Walter, Dave. “Impeaching Judge Crum.” In Montana Campfire Tales: Fourteen Historical Narratives. Helena, MT: TwoDot, 1997. All rights reserved.

Walter, David. “Patriots Gone Berserk: The Montana Council of Defense, 1917-1918.” In More Montana Campfire Tales: Fifteen Historical Narratives. Helena, MT: Farcountry Press, 2002.

Wetzel, Kurt. "The Defeat of Bill Dunne: An Episode in the Montana Red Scare." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 64, no. 1 (1973): 12-20.

Wheeler, Burton K., and Helay, Paul F. Yankee from the West. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962.

Wilson, Joan Hoff. “‘Peace Is a Woman’s Job . . .’ Jeannette Rankin and American Foreign Policy: The Origins of Her Pacifism.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 30, no. 1 (Winter 1980): 28-41.

Wilson, Joan Hoff. “‘Peace Is a Woman’s Job . . .’ Jeannette Rankin and American Foreign Policy: Her Lifework as a Pacifist.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 30, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 38-53. 

Wood, David L. "American Indian Farmland and the Great War." Agricultural History 55, no. 3 (1981): 249-65.

Work, Clemens P. Darkest Before Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 2005. Read Chapter 10: "The Pot Boils Over."

Work, Clemens P. "Good Night with the Stars and Stripes, Army, Navy and Mister Damned Wilson." Montana The Magazine of Western History 55, no. 4 (2005): 16-35. 

Work, Clemens P. “The Montana Sedition Project.” University of Montana School of Journalism. (Includes profiles of and information about Montanans convicted for violating the Sedition Act.) Accessed 5 July, 2016.

"Workmen’s Compensation." Monthly Labor Review 7, no. 6 (1918): 318-28. (Includes a section on Workmen’s Compensation in Montana.)  

Vivian, James F. "The Last Round-Up: Theodore Roosevelt Confronts the Nonpartisan League, October 1918." Montana The Magazine of Western History 36, no. 1 (1986): 36-49. 

Zellick, Anna. "Mob Action in Lewistown, 1917-1918: Patriots on the Rampage." Montana The Magazine of Western History 31, no. 1 (1981): 30-43. 

Zissu, Erik M. “Conscription, Sovereignty, and Land: American Indian Resistance during World War I.” Pacific Historical Review 64, no. 4 (Nov., 1995): 537-566.